Das Handzeichen wird zunehmend von White-Supremacy-Anhängern genutzt. Die Geste wurde ursprünglich zum Scherz umgedeutet. Lesen Sie jetzt „Wirbel um angeblich rechtsextreme Geste bei "hart aber fair"“. Szene für die Buchstaben «w» und «p» - also «white power». Die Geste ist mittlerweile umstritten, weil Rechtsradikale aus der Handform ein "wp" ablesen und als verdecktes Symbol für "white power".
Bonvalot.netDas Handzeichen wird zunehmend von White-Supremacy-Anhängern genutzt. Die Geste wurde ursprünglich zum Scherz umgedeutet. Doch in jüngster Zeit wurde die Okay-Geste auch mit Anhängern der rassistischen "White Supremacy"-Ideologien in Verbindung gebracht. White Power (im Sinne von: Weiße Macht) ist ein oft verwendeter Schlüsselbegriff in der Neonaziszene. Der Begriff White Power und das Symbol der.
White Supremacy Geste historical usage of white supremacy VideoLicence to Hate: White Supremacy in the US - Fault Lines
Since the early s, the White power movement has been committed to overthrowing the United States government and establishing a white homeland using paramilitary tactics.
In academic usage, particularly in critical race theory or intersectionality , "white supremacy" can also refer to a social system in which white people enjoy structural advantages privilege over other ethnic groups, on both a collective and individual level, despite formal legal equality.
White supremacy has ideological foundations that date back to 17th-century scientific racism , the predominant paradigm of human variation that helped shape international relations and racial policy from the latter part of the Age of Enlightenment until the late 20th century marked by decolonization and the abolition of apartheid in South Africa in , followed by that country's first multiracial elections in White supremacy was dominant in the United States both before and after the American Civil War , and it also persisted for decades after the Reconstruction Era.
Frank Baum wrote: "The Whites, by law of conquest , by justice of civilization, are masters of the American continent, and the best safety of the frontier settlements will be secured by the total annihilation of the few remaining Indians.
The Naturalization Act of limited U. Professor Leland T. Saito of the University of Southern California writes: "Throughout the history of the United States, race has been used by whites for legitimizing and creating difference and social, economic and political exclusion.
The denial of social and political freedom to minorities continued into the midth century, resulting in the civil rights movement. After the mids, white supremacy remained an important ideology to the American far-right.
Some academics argue that outcomes from the United States Presidential Election reflect ongoing challenges with white supremacy.
Psychologist Janet Helms suggested that the normalizing behaviors of social institutions of education, government, and healthcare are organized around the "birthright of On July 23, , Christopher A.
Wray , the head of the FBI , said at a Senate Judiciary Committee hearing that the agency had made around domestic terrorism arrests since October 1, , and that the majority of them were connected in some way with white supremacy.
Wray said that the Bureau was "aggressively pursuing [domestic terrorism] using both counterterrorism resources and criminal investigative resources and partnering closely with our state and local partners," but said that it was focused on the violence itself and not on its ideological basis.
A similar number of arrests had been made for instances of international terrorism. In the past, Wray has said that white supremacy was a significant and "pervasive" threat to the U.
On September 20, , the acting Secretary of Homeland Security , Kevin McAleenan , announced his department's revised strategy for counter-terrorism, which included a new emphasis on the dangers inherent in the white supremacy movement.
McAleenan called white supremacy one of the most "potent ideologies" behind domestic terrorism-related violent acts.
In a speech at the Brookings Institution , McAleenan cited a series of high-profile shooting incidents, and said "In our modern age, the continued menace of racially based violent extremism, particularly white supremacist extremism, is an abhorrent affront to the nation, the struggle and unity of its diverse population.
White supremacy has also played a part in U. Over the course of the 19th , 20th , and 21st centuries, material across the spectrum of academic disciplines has been taught with an overemphasis on White culture, contributions, and experiences, and a corresponding underrepresentation of non-White groups' perspectives and accomplishments.
He states that the language used to tell history minimizes the violent acts committed by White people over the centuries, citing the use of the words "discovery," "colonization," and " New World " when describing what was ultimately a European conquest of the western hemisphere and its indigenous peoples as examples.
In an analysis of American history textbooks, she highlights word choices that repetitively "normalize" slavery and the inhumane treatment of Black people p.
She also notes the frequent showcasing of White abolitionists and actual exclusion of Black abolitionists, as well as the fact that Black Americans had been mobilizing for abolition for centuries before the major White American push for abolition in the 19th century.
She ultimately asserts the presence of a masternarrative that centers Europe and its associated peoples White people in school curriculum, particularly as it pertains to history.
Elson provides detailed information about the historic dissemination of simplistic and negative ideas about non-White races.
White culture, at the turn of the 20th century. White supremacy has been depicted in music videos , feature films , documentaries , journal entries, and on social media.
The silent drama film The Birth of a Nation followed the rising racial, economic, political, and geographic tensions leading up to the Emancipation Proclamation and the Southern Reconstruction era that was the genesis of the Ku Klux Klan.
David Duke , a former Grand Wizard of the Ku Klux Klan , believed that the Internet was going to create a "chain reaction of racial enlightenment that will shake the world.
There certainly were hate groups before the Internet and social media. It could be to raise money, or it could be to engage in attacks on social media.
Some of the activity is virtual. Some of it is in a physical place. Social media has lowered the collective-action problems that individuals who might want to be in a hate group would face.
You can see that there are people out there like you. That's the dark side of social media. With the emergence of Twitter in , and platforms such as Stormfront which was launched in , an alt-right portal for white supremacists with similar beliefs, both adults and children, was provided in which they were given a way to connect.
Daniels discussed the emergence of other social media outlets such as 4chan and Reddit , which meant that the "spread of white nationalist symbols and ideas could be accelerated and amplified.
In the latest wave of white supremacy, in the age of the Internet, Blee sees the movement as having primarily become a virtual one, in which divisions between groups become blurred: "[A]ll these various groups that get jumbled together as the alt-right and people who have come in from the more traditional neo-Nazi world.
We're in a very different world now. A series on YouTube hosted by the grandson of Thomas Robb , the national director of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, "presents the Klan's ideology in a format aimed at kids — more specifically, white kids.
A sign that greets people who enter the town states " Diversity is a code for white genocide. The comic book super hero Captain America , in an ironic co-optation, has been used for dog whistle politics by the alt-right in college campus recruitment in In , Winston Churchill told the Palestine Royal Commission : "I do not admit for instance, that a great wrong has been done to the Red Indians of America or the black people of Australia.
I do not admit that a wrong has been done to these people by the fact that a stronger race, a higher-grade race, a more worldly wise race to put it that way, has come in and taken their place.
A number of Southern African nations experienced severe racial tension and conflict during global decolonization , particularly as white Africans of European ancestry fought to protect their preferential social and political status.
Racial segregation in South Africa began in colonial times under the Dutch Empire , and it continued when the British took over the Cape of Good Hope in Apartheid was introduced as an officially structured policy by the Afrikaner -dominated National Party after the general election of Apartheid's legislation divided inhabitants into four racial groups—"black", "white", "coloured", and "Indian", with coloured divided into several sub-classifications.
In Rhodesia a predominantly white government issued its own unilateral declaration of independence from the United Kingdom during an unsuccessful attempt to avoid immediate majority rule.
Nazism promoted the idea of a superior Germanic people or Aryan race in Germany during the early 20th century. Notions of white supremacy and Aryan racial superiority were combined in the 19th century, with white supremacists maintaining the belief that white people were members of an Aryan " master race " which was superior to other races, particularly the Jews , who were described as the "Semitic race", Slavs , and Gypsies , which they associated with "cultural sterility".
Gobineau's theories, which attracted a strong following in Germany, emphasized the existence of an irreconcilable polarity between Aryan or Germanic peoples and Jewish culture.
They may also hold events to commemorate things they hold dear, or to share ideas and concepts. A few recent examples of these sorts of activities illustrate some of the public events that white supremacists hold across the United States:.
In addition to public events, white supremacists frequently organize barbecues, parties, hate music concerts, and other social gatherings for themselves and like-minded people.
The following examples from recent months illustrate this type of activity:. Paris, Tennessee, April Members of the Supreme White Alliance, a racist skinhead group, held a cookout and cross-burning on private property for a handful of members.
Unfortunately, white supremacists do not always limit themselves to protests and barbecues, but instead choose to engage in criminal activity, often of the most violent sort, from hate crimes murders to acts of terrorism.
This report has already alluded to a number of such acts, including the attacks in Charleston, Overland Park, Oak Creek, and Austin, among others.
Sadly, those acts are hardly alone. White supremacists are the single greatest source of extremist-related violence in the United States, surpassing right-wing anti-government extremists, domestic Islamic extremists, and left-wing extremists and anarchists.
Indeed, one need only look at extremist-related murders to see how large the white supremacist movement looms in the landscape of extremist violence in the United States.
The Anti-Defamation League maintains a database of murders and killings that have some sort of extremist connection of any kind.
Although the data, which goes back decades, undercounts the true number of such killings, it represents a minimum figure that allows some basic quantification.
Preliminarily, ADL data for the past 10 years—from July through June —indicate at least murders occurred in the United States with some sort of extremist connection.
In other words, the vast majority of extremist-related murders in the United States are committed by people with ties to the white supremacist movement.
The data also reveal a surprising aspect of white supremacist violence. If one takes the killings related to white supremacy and analyzes them for the role that white supremacist ideology may have played in the killings, a surprising fact emerges.
Of the murders, only 63 were deaths in which white supremacist ideology played a primary or secondary role. What does this figure tell us?
First, that white supremacists can kill for many reasons, not just reasons related to their cause. It speaks to the fact that white supremacy attracts many people who have violent inclinations, inclinations that can play themselves out just as easily in non-political situations as political ones.
It indicates, too, the degree to which the movement accepts violence as a solution for all sorts of perceived problems. Many of the killings are, in essence, crimes of passion, including killing spouses, girlfriends, and children, as well as murders in situations such as road rage or bar fights.
An analysis of the killings also reveals the very high degree to which traditional crime is a common practice among white supremacists—and not just among members of white supremacist prison gangs.
White supremacists commit non-ideological murders at a much higher rate than other extremist movements. However, even if non-ideological killings were to be removed altogether from these statistics, white supremacists would still be the most deadly type of domestic extremist in the United States, perpetrating approximately half of all the murders in which ideology played a primary or secondary motivation.
These figures are borne out by other measurements as well. For example, between and , the Anti-Defamation League has identified 54 separate shooting incidents between police and extremists of any sort in the United States.
The bulk of these involve full-fledged shootouts between police and extremists. There are also a few incidents in which extremists fired at police but police did not need to return fire in order to apprehend them, as well as a few incidents in which extremists tried to fire at police or threatened them in some other way and were then shot by police.
White supremacists have also engaged in a wide variety of conspiracies, plots and terrorist acts. Some of these violent acts have already been described earlier in this report, but the true number is considerably greater, as these examples from just the past few years indicate:.
According to an affidavit, Kircus constructed a bomb out of automobile airbags he took from the auto shop where he worked.
According to evidence presented during his plea proceedings, Fullmore sold the guns in order to fund violence against minority-related targets.
In June , FBI agents arrested Fullmore after he told an undercover agent that he wanted to fire-bomb a local Catholic church in a Hispanic community in the Claxton, Georgia, area.
On the run, he died a few days later in a shootout with Texas law enforcement officers. Ebel was a member of the Crew, a Colorado-based white supremacist prison gang.
The plot was uncovered after a teacher at Russell County High School in Seale, Alabama, found a journal containing plans of an attack and alerted police.
In April , Shrout pleaded guilty to first-degree attempted assault. A weapon of mass destruction charge was dropped. Johnson pleaded guilty to being a felon in possession of a weapon and was sentenced to 15 years in prison.
Thomas pleaded guilty to possession with intent to distributed methamphetamines, and received 10 years in prison.
In court, Pederson said he targeted the Oregon man because he believed he was Jewish and the Californian man because he was black.
After their arrest, the couple admitted they had been headed to Sacramento to find a prominent Jewish person to kill. Harpham confessed to planting a backpack along the parade route containing a pipe bomb designed to be triggered by a radio frequency system.
Luckily, the bomb failed to go off. Harpham was sentenced to 32 years in prison. Luckily, the couple was not injured.
All four ended up pleading guilty to federal hate crimes charges; another defendant, Wendy Treybig, also a white supremacist, pleaded guilty to obstructing justice in connection with the incident.
He was sentenced to two years in prison after pleading guilty. Prosecutors in the case alleged that Harbin made the explosive devices to be used during vigilante operations on the Mexican border and designed them to cause the most carnage possible.
These examples demonstrate that, as disturbing as white supremacist propaganda and protests are, it is the violence of the movement that poses the true danger, the violence that reared its hateful head so recently in Charleston, South Carolina, at the Emanuel AME Church.
White supremacists will try to spread their message, they will try to recruit more people into the movement, and occasionally they will succeed. But it would take a major change in American attitudes—a drastic departure that would radically go against the grain of the last years of American history—to make the dreams of white supremacists become reality.
The movement is likely to remain on the fringe, to be opposed rather than accepted by most other Americans.
Unfortunately, the dreams of white supremacists need not come true in order for their passions to turn the lives of other Americans into nightmares.
It only takes a few people with hate in their heart to wound a city or a nation. White supremacists have enough adherents for that—and more than enough hate.
Because of this, every community and every institution in this country must guard against the very real threat that white supremacists still pose today.
Skip Navigation. Expand search Search. Deadly act of domestic terrorism. Dylann Storm Roof, suspect in Charleston shooting spree. This is the case today because U.
White supremacy and the many forms of racism it employs is infused into our social structure, our institutions, our worldviews, beliefs, knowledge, and ways of interacting with each other.
It's even encoded into some of our holidays, like Columbus Day, which celebrates a racist perpetrator of genocide. The white supremacy of our society is evident in the fact that whites maintain a structural advantage over people of color in nearly every aspect of life.
White people maintain an educational advantage , an income advantage , a wealth advantage , and a political advantage. White supremacists, as well as many social conservatives , were troubled by the U.
Their resentment contributed to the growth of various groups and movements that actively preached white supremacy, including the traditional KKK, various neo-Nazi organizations, and the religious Christian Identity groups.
Indeed, by the second half of the 20th century, the Christian Identity movement—which claimed that northwestern Europeans were directly descended from the biblical tribes of Israel and that the impending Armageddon will produce a final battle of whites against nonwhites—was the dominant religious viewpoint of white supremacists in the United States.
Nevertheless, white supremacists in the United States and throughout the world ultimately were unable to defend the laws that ensured white domination.
The last regimes to institutionalize doctrines of white supremacy through comprehensive legislation were Rhodesia , which changed its name to Zimbabwe after its white minority finally ceded power in , and South Africa , whose apartheid system was dismantled in the s.
Despite the demise of segregationist and discriminatory laws throughout the Western world and in Africa, white supremacy has survived as a populist doctrine.
Department of Homeland Security and the Federal Bureau of Investigation FBI warned that white supremacist groups and right-wing militias in the country were winning new recruits by stoking fears of gun control and expanded welfare rolls and by exploiting resentment created by the economic recession that began in late Christian Identity is a religious sect and one of the longstanding segments of the white supremacist movement.
They are not Christian fundamentalists, who strongly oppose their views. Terrorism is a pre-planned act or attempted act of significant violence by one or more non-state actors in order to further an ideological, social or religious cause, or to harm perceived opponents of such causes.
Significant violent acts can include bombings or use of other weapons of mass destruction, assassinations and targeted killings, shooting sprees, arsons and firebombings, kidnappings and hostage situations and, in some cases, armed robberies.
Domestic terrorism consists of acts or attempted acts of terrorism in which the perpetrators are citizens or permanent residents of the country in which the act takes place and are not members or agents of foreign or international terrorist organizations.
In the United States, the extreme right consists primarily of two large, slightly overlapping spheres. In one sphere is the white supremacist movement, including its various submovements, such as neo-Nazis, racist skinheads, and the alt right, among others.
See Extreme Right; the terms are mostly synonymous. A hate crime is a criminal act against a person or property in which the perpetrator chooses the victim because of the victim's real or perceived race, religion, national origin, ethnicity, sexual orientation, disability or gender.
Some state-level statutory definitions in the United States may include additional or fewer categories.
Hate crime and hate speech are not synonymous and most hate speech is not hate crime.